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Inside The Windows 95 File System


Confirm Attribute ChangesYou have chosen to make the following attribute changes:unset read-onlyDo you want to apply this change to this folder only, or do you want to apply it to all subfolders and files as well?If you click Apply changes to this folder only, the Read-only attribute is changed for all the files in the folder. However, the Read-only attribute is not changed for the folder, its subfolders, or any files in its subfolders. If you click Apply changes to this folder, subfolders, and files, the Read-only attribute is changed for all files in the folder and all files in the subfolders. However, the Read-only attribute is not changed for the folder or its subfolders.




Inside the Windows 95 file system



Note Unlike the Read-only attribute for a file, the Read-only attribute for a folder is typically ignored by Windows, Windows components and accessories, and other programs. For example, you can delete, rename, and change a folder with the Read-only attribute by using Windows Explorer. The Read-only and System attributes is only used by Windows Explorer to determine whether the folder is a special folder, such as a system folder that has its view customized by Windows (for example, My Documents, Favorites, Fonts, Downloaded Program Files), or a folder that you customized by using the Customize tab of the folder's Properties dialog box. As a result, Windows Explorer does not allow you to view or change the Read-only or System attributes of folders. When a folder has the Read-Only attribute set it causes Explorer to request the Desktop.ini of that folder to see if any special folder settings need to be set. It has been seen where if a network share that has a large amount of folders set to Read-only, it can cause Explorer to take longer then what is expected to render the contents of that share while it waits on the retrieval of the Desktop.ini files. The slower the network connectivity to the share the longer this process can take to the point where Explorer may timeout waiting for the data and render nothing or appear to hang. Note In some previous versions of Windows, you can change the Read-only attribute for folders by using the Properties dialog box for the folder, but no versions of Windows permit you to change the System attribute by using Windows Explorer.


Warning If you remove the Read-only or System attribute from a folder, it may appear as a ordinary folder and some customizations may be lost. For example, Windows customizes the Fonts folder and provides a special folder view that permits you to hide variations, such as bold and italic. It also permits you to change the folder's view settings in ways that are specific to fonts. If you remove the Read-only and System attributes of the Fonts folder, these customized view settings are not available. For folders that you have customized by using the Customize tab of the folder'sProperties dialog box, the folder icon and other other customizations may be lost when you remove the Read-only attribute.If a program cannot save files to a folder with the Read-only attribute, such as My Documents, change the Read-only attribute to System by using the Attrib command at a command prompt.Note If the Run command is not listed on the Start menu, do the following: Click Start, click All Programs, click Accessories, and then click Run.To remove the Read-only attribute and to set the System attribute, use the following command:


Windows stores file and folder attributes in the file system with the file and folder name, extension, date and time stamps, and other information. The Read-only check box for folders is not available because it does not apply to the folder. You can use this check box to set the Read-only attribute for files in the folder. However, you cannot use Windows Explorer to determine whether a folder has the Read-only and System attributes set. To determine the attributes that are set on a folder, or to change these attributes, you must use the Attrib command at a command prompt.


To install Windows on a system that has Linux installed when you want to remove Linux, you must manually delete the partitions used by the Linux operating system. The Windows-compatible partition can be created automatically during the installation of the Windows operating system.IMPORTANT: Before you follow the steps in this article, verify that you have a bootable disk or bootable CD-ROM for the Linux operating system, because this process completely removes the Linux operating system installed on your computer. If you intend to restore the Linux operating system at a later date, verify that you also have a good backup of all the information stored on your computer. Also, you must have a full release version of the Windows operating system you want to install.Linux file systems use a "superblock" at the beginning of a disk partition to identify the basic size, shape, and condition of the file system.The Linux operating system is generally installed on partition type 83 (Linux native) or 82 (Linux swap). The Linux boot manager (LILO) can be configured to start from:


105074 MS-DOS 6.2 Partitioning Questions and AnswersIf you are installing Windows NT 4.0 or Windows 2000, the Linux partitions can be removed and new partitions created and formatted with the appropriate file system type during the installation process. Windows allows you to create more than one primary partition. The largest partition that Windows NT 4.0 allows you to create during installation is 4 GB because of the limitations of the FAT16 file system during installation. Also, the 4-GB partitions use 64-KB cluster sizes. MS-DOS 6.x and Windows 95 or Windows 98 do not recognize 64-KB cluster file systems, so this file system is usually converted to NTFS during installation. Windows 2000, unlike Windows NT 4.0, recognizes the FAT32 file system. During the installation of Windows 2000, you can create a very large FAT32 drive. The FAT32 drive can be converted to NTFS after the installation has completed if appropriate.


Disk structures have not changed in Windows 95. Partitions are still exactly the same, so the MS-DOS 7 bootable files of Windows 95 must still be installed to the C drive. Windows 95 still uses 16-bit FAT (FAT16) formats for hard disk drives and floppy disk. The FDISK and FORMAT commands are still used to set up hard drives. A hard drive that was partitioned with FDISK and formatted with an older version of MS-DOS is exactly like a Windows 95 drive. Windows 95 OSR2 and Windows 98 support 32-bit FAT (FAT32). This file system improves storage efficiency by reducing cluster sizes on large partitions. The following table shows the Windows 95 versions and their appropriate file system.if(typeof ez_ad_units!='undefined')ez_ad_units.push([[300,250],'brainbell_com-medrectangle-3','ezslot_3',112,'0','0']);__ez_fad_position('div-gpt-ad-brainbell_com-medrectangle-3-0');VersionDescriptionVersion AThe original Windows 95 release-intended for upgrading from Windows 3.1. Uses FAT16 file system.Version BThe OEM (original equipment manufacturer) version-intended for installation on new computers only. Uses FAT16.OSR2The final version of Windows 95 (sometimes referred to as Version C)- intended for installation on new computers only. Uses FAT32 file system. End users cannot buy this version as a retail product.32-Bit VFATDisk access is provided through the 32-bit VFAT (virtual file allocation table). Unlike the 16-bit FAT used in previous versions, VFAT is a virtual device driver that operates in protected mode. This provides more reliability and works with a greater variety of hardware. Don't confuse 32-bit VFAT with 32-bit FAT, which has to do with how data is stored on a hard disk partition (the cluster size) while VFAT has to do with how files are accessed.


In MS-DOS and Windows 3.x, filenames were in what is called an 8.3 ("eight dot three") format. That is, the filename itself was restricted to a maximum of eight characters in length, and the extension to a maximum of three characters in length. Filename and extension are connected by a period, or "dot." Windows 95 supports long filenames (LFNs). The LFN removes the 8.3 filename limitation of older MS-DOS and Windows operation systems. In a regular MS-DOS 8.3 file specification directory, all file records are stored in 32-byte records. Ten of these 32 bytes are "reserved." The other 22 bytes are used to store information on starting clusters, creation date, and creation time, and 11 bytes are for the filename itself. LFNs exist on FAT partitions by chopping the filename into 12-byte chunks (stealing one of the "reserved" bytes) and allowing up to 13 chunks, creating a filename of up to 255 characters.


When an LFN is saved, the system creates a short name that conforms to the 8.3 standard. Then, each 12 characters is cut off and stored in its own directory section. The directory entries that make up the long filename are called LFN entries. These must be backwardly compatible with MS-DOS programs and with MS-DOS itself.NOTEWindows takes the first six characters (no spaces) of the filename, adds a tilde (), a number, and then the extension. If two or more files have the same first six characters, the number is incremented by one for each. For example, two files named "long file name one.txt" and "long file name two.txt" would become "longfi1.txt" and "longfi2.txt".To make LFNs compatible with MS-DOS means to make sure that MS-DOS ignores the LFN entries in the directory structure. This is achieved by giving LFN entries the bizarre attribute-combination of hidden, read-only, system, and volume label. There is nothing in the MS-DOS code that tells it what to do if it runs into a file with this combination of attributes, so MS-DOS will not interfere with them.


The main difference between Windows 95 and Windows 3.x is the Registry. The Registry consists of two binary files called SYSTEM.DAT and USER.DAT that are located in the Windows directory. Because they are hidden read-only files, they are prevented from being accidentally removed or changed. The Registry holds information on all the hardware in the computer, network information, user preferences, and file types, as well as anything else that pertains to Windows 95. The idea of the Registry is to have one common database for everything that comprises the computer. The Registry is designed to replace CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT, as well as every .INI file (especially WINDOWS.INI and SYSTEM.INI). Windows 95 still reads these files at boot up to provide backward compatibility with Win 3.x programs that use them.by BrainBellupdated Aug 01, 2016if(typeof ez_ad_units!='undefined')ez_ad_units.push([[300,250],'brainbell_com-box-1','ezslot_5',154,'0','0']);__ez_fad_position('div-gpt-ad-brainbell_com-box-1-0');report this adNext > 041b061a72


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