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Clairvoyance (/klɛərˈvɔɪ.əns/; from French clair 'clear', and voyance 'vision') is the magical ability to gain information about an object, person, location, or physical event through extrasensory perception.[2][3] Any person who is claimed to have such ability is said to be a clairvoyant (/klɛərˈvɔɪ.ənt/)[4] ("one who sees clearly").


Claims for the existence of paranormal and psychic abilities such as clairvoyance have not been supported by scientific evidence.[5] Parapsychology explores this possibility, but the existence of the paranormal is not accepted by the scientific community.[6] The scientific community widely considers parapsychology, including the study of clairvoyance, a pseudoscience.[7][8][9][10][11][12]

Pertaining to the ability of clear-sightedness, clairvoyance refers to the paranormal ability to see persons and events that are distant in time or space. It can be divided into roughly three classes: precognition, the ability to perceive or predict future events, retrocognition, the ability to see past events, and remote viewing, the perception of contemporary events happening outside the range of normal perception.[13]

In several religions, stories of certain individuals being able to see things far removed from their immediate sensory perception are commonplace, especially within pagan religions where oracles were used. Prophecy often involved some degree of clairvoyance, especially when future events were predicted. This ability has sometimes been attributed to a higher power rather than to the person performing it.

In Jainism, clairvoyance is regarded as one of the five kinds of knowledge. The beings of hell and heaven (devas) are said to possess clairvoyance by birth. According to Jain text Sarvārthasiddhi, "this kind of knowledge has been called avadhi as it ascertains matter in downward range or knows objects within limits".[14]

The earliest record of somnambulist clairvoyance is credited to the Marquis de Puységur, a follower of Franz Mesmer, who in 1784 was treating a local dull-witted peasant named Victor Race. During treatment, Race reportedly would go into trance and undergo a personality change, becoming fluent and articulate, and giving diagnosis and prescription for his own disease as well as those of others.[19] Clairvoyance was a reported ability of some mediums during the spiritualist period of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and psychics of many descriptions have claimed clairvoyant ability up to the present day.[20]

Early researchers of clairvoyance included William Gregory, Gustav Pagenstecher, and Rudolf Tischner.[21] Clairvoyance experiments were reported in 1884 by Charles Richet. Playing cards were enclosed in envelopes and a subject put under hypnosis attempted to identify them. The subject was reported to have been successful in a series of 133 trials but the results dropped to chance level when performed before a group of scientists in Cambridge. J. M. Peirce and E. C. Pickering reported a similar experiment in which they tested 36 subjects over 23,384 trials which did not obtain above chance scores.[22]

Ivor Lloyd Tuckett (1911) and Joseph McCabe (1920) analyzed early cases of clairvoyance and came to the conclusion they were best explained by coincidence or fraud.[23][24] In 1919, the magician P. T. Selbit staged a séance at his own flat in Bloomsbury. The spiritualist Arthur Conan Doyle attended the séance and declared the clairvoyance manifestations to be genuine.[25][26]

A significant development in clairvoyance research came when J. B. Rhine, a parapsychologist at Duke University, introduced a standard methodology, with a standard statistical approach to analyzing data, as part of his research into extrasensory perception. A number of psychological departments attempted to repeat Rhine's experiments, with failure. W. S. Cox (1936) from Princeton University with 132 subjects produced 25,064 trials in a playing card ESP experiment. Cox concluded, "There is no evidence of extrasensory perception either in the 'average man' or of the group investigated or in any particular individual of that group. The discrepancy between these results and those obtained by Rhine is due either to uncontrollable factors in experimental procedure or to the difference in the subjects."[27] Four other psychological departments failed to replicate Rhine's results.[28][29] It was revealed that Rhine's experiments contained methodological flaws and procedural errors.[30][31][32]

Eileen Garrett was tested by Rhine at Duke University in 1933 with Zener cards. Certain symbols that were placed on the cards and sealed in an envelope, and she was asked to guess their contents. She performed poorly and later criticized the tests by claiming the cards lacked a psychic energy called "energy stimulus" and that she could not perform clairvoyance to order.[33] The parapsychologist Samuel Soal and his colleagues tested Garrett in May 1937. Most of the experiments were carried out in the Psychological Laboratory at the University College London. A total of over 12,000 guesses were recorded but Garrett failed to produce above chance level.[34] In his report Soal wrote "In the case of Mrs. Eileen Garrett we fail to find the slightest confirmation of Dr. J. B. Rhine's remarkable claims relating to her alleged powers of extra-sensory perception. Not only did she fail when I took charge of the experiments, but she failed equally when four other carefully trained experimenters took my place."[35]

Remote viewing, also known as remote sensing, remote perception, telesthesia and travelling clairvoyance is the alleged paranormal ability to perceive a remote or hidden target without support of the senses.[36]

According to scientific research, clairvoyance is generally explained as the result of confirmation bias, expectancy bias, fraud, hallucination, self-delusion, sensory leakage, subjective validation, wishful thinking or failures to appreciate the base rate of chance occurrences and not as a paranormal power.[5][51][52][53] Parapsychology is generally regarded by the scientific community as a pseudoscience.[54][55] In 1988, the US National Research Council concluded "The committee finds no scientific justification from research conducted over a period of 130 years, for the existence of parapsychological phenomena."[56]

Skeptics say that if clairvoyance were a reality, it would have become abundantly clear. They also contend that those who believe in paranormal phenomena do so for merely psychological reasons.[57] According to David G. Myers (Psychology, 8th ed.):

A kind of psychic television, named as a special form of clairvoyance by British psychic Vincent N. Turvey in 1905, when the telephone was still a relatively new device to most people. Phone-voyance implies four things: psychic vision, physical contact, the wires and instruments of a telephone company, and simultaneity of clairvoyance with physical contact. Turvey often described things which the listener at the other end of the telephone wire did not know, for instance, what his daughter was doing in the room above him or what a man behind his back was reading in a book.

The famous spiritualist editor W. T. Stead, in his preface to Turvey's Beginnings of Seership (1911), quoted the case of Mrs. A. T. Giddings, a professional music hall performer, whotrained the faculty of "phone-voyance" to such perfection that it could be exercised at will under the most adverse conditions. Experiments with Giddings were carried out by a committee of investigators between the stage of the Alhambra Theater in London and the office of the Daily Mirror. Articles presented at random to Mr. Zomah (professional name of A. T. Giddings) by members of the committee in the Alhambra were immediately seen and described by his wife who was at the other end of the telephone in the newspaper office.

Voyance by Baruti is unique fragrance with a smoky side and a strong floral component, means clairvoyance in French. The name originates from its color: although the perfume is characterized by a white smoky flower, which should be dense and impenetrable, the fragrance is very clear and transparent as when looking into a crystal sphere. Born from the curiosity and experimentation of Spyros this fragrance combining different notes, the result is a scent with a definite note of moss that seems to have overturned the olfactory pyramid.

One day, Spyros put them together and was amazed by what he found, something completely unique, unapologetically gender-fluid yet self-evident. He decided to call it Voyance (after the French word "clairvoyance" as it is the paradox that makes perfect sense, like someone predicting the future simply by focusing on the right cues.

Everything that Voyance does is from the perspective of the end user. It allows for Wi-Fi experts to evaluate the user experience from access to application. Voyance maintains a history of the user experience and so Wi-Fi experts are able to track to see whether the user had a good or bad experience also the ability to understand why if they had a bad experience. This feature of voyance is called the root cause analysis, simply provides a list of potential problems with the network that could have contributed to the poor user experience.

By establishing these baselines for the norm of the network it is easier to identify incidents. While there are always incidents on a network, voyance allows you to be able to identify the ones that have the greatest impact on the network. Incidents are ranked on a scale of 1-5 with 1 having the greatest priority while incident rated at 5 should be reviewed but it has the least chance of affecting the network.

I've learned a lot in this FREE BASIC VIRTUAL TRAINING, like the right pronunciation of words, vowel sounds, consonant sounds, prepositions, and grammatical errors. It's like going back to my high school years. It also refreshed my mind. I also learned about making the right format of a resume. Thank you Clairvoyance Virtual Training.It can really help me get a job because advanced training is more focused and I can learn more. Through this, I can also get two certificates that I can use as proof of training. This will be a big help for me because I only graduated high school. 041b061a72


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